A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Agenda for the Gratification Discrepancies Approach





Gratifications sought and obtained (GO-GS), Uses and gratifications theory (U&G), Systematic literature review (SLR), Theory-based review


Uses and gratifications theory helps in studying the underlying needs for using media that lead to positive behavioral intention and satisfaction. One of its approaches is gratification discrepancies (i.e., the difference between gratifications obtained and gratifications sought [GO-GS]) helps to explore the gratifications of using media and the results obtained after using media. The GO-GS approach provides an opportunity to collect the data two times, both before and after the usage of media. Several researchers have suggested this approach as a suitable method for investigating attitudinal change, beliefs, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Despite the importance of the GO-GS approach, there is a lack of systematic literature review to summarize the developments in academic literature related to GO-GS. Therefore, this review addresses this gap by assessing the articles using the GO-GS approach published from 1979–2020. A research string was developed using Boolean operators to search the literature. A total of 4,184 articles were considered for the initial screening, but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were critically analyzed, and seven main realms are proposed, grounded in developments in the literature, such as research context, regions of research, media, gratifications, consumer behavior, other theories or models, and different conceptualizations to study gratification discrepancies.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Hamza Shahab, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya AND Universität der Bundeswehr München,

Dr. Hamza Shahab is a PhD scholar at University of Malaya, Malaysia. He has been working as a Lecturer at University of Wah since 2014. His main areas of research interest are digital marketing and tourism. Hamza has publications in well-reputed journals such as Computers in Human Behavior, International Journal of Consumer Studies, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction and others. He has also worked as an assistant editor of UW Journal of Management Sciences (UWJMS).

Ezlika M. Ghazali, PhD, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya

Dr. Ezlika Ghazali is an Associate Professor at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Her Ph.D. is from Warwick University in England. Her research interests include consumer behavior, switching barriers, augmented-reality marketing, online retailing, sustainable marketing, and social entrepreneurship. Ezlika has authored over 130 academic articles, conferences, and books.

Mozard Mohtar, PhD, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya

Dr. Mozard Mohtar (Corresponding author) is a senior lecturer in the Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Malaya. He received his PhD in Marketing from Aston University (UK) and MBA from University of Malaya (Malaysia). He teaches marketing-related subjects with a deep research interest in advertising, marketing, and consumer psychology. He did various consulting works for various organizations including the Islamic Tourism Centre of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture on profiling mosques as tourism attractions.




How to Cite

Shahab, M. H., Ghazali, E. M., & Mohtar, M. (2022). A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Agenda for the Gratification Discrepancies Approach. Contemporary Management Research, 18(1), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.7903/cmr.21583



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