A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Agenda for the Gratification Discrepancies Approach
Keywords:Gratifications sought and obtained (GO-GS), Uses and gratifications theory (U&G), Systematic literature review (SLR), Theory-based review
Uses and gratifications theory helps in studying the underlying needs for using media that lead to positive behavioral intention and satisfaction. One of its approaches is gratification discrepancies (i.e., the difference between gratifications obtained and gratifications sought [GO-GS]) helps to explore the gratifications of using media and the results obtained after using media. The GO-GS approach provides an opportunity to collect the data two times, both before and after the usage of media. Several researchers have suggested this approach as a suitable method for investigating attitudinal change, beliefs, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Despite the importance of the GO-GS approach, there is a lack of systematic literature review to summarize the developments in academic literature related to GO-GS. Therefore, this review addresses this gap by assessing the articles using the GO-GS approach published from 1979–2020. A research string was developed using Boolean operators to search the literature. A total of 4,184 articles were considered for the initial screening, but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were critically analyzed, and seven main realms are proposed, grounded in developments in the literature, such as research context, regions of research, media, gratifications, consumer behavior, other theories or models, and different conceptualizations to study gratification discrepancies.